Hide Advanced Show Advanced

Search

Name

Use default settings
Use default settings

Birth

Use default settings

Lived In

Use default settings

Any Event

Use default settings

More

e.g. pilot or "Flying Tigers"

Get Better Matches

You can search for:

  • Marital Status
  • Relation to Head of House
  • Occupation
Use default settings
Use default settings

Source Information

Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints © Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. All use is subject to the limited use license and other terms and conditions applicable to this site.
Original data: Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

About 1880 United States Federal Census

The 1880 United States Federal Census contains information about 50 million individuals. This census gives us a glimpse into the lives of Americans in 1880, and contains information about a household’s occupants including birthplaces, occupations, health conditions, and education.

The 1880 census is a valuable tool in part because it is the only U. S. census available for the last two decades of the 1800s. Most of the original 1890 population schedules were destroyed in a fire at the Commerce Department in 1921. Less than one percent of the schedules—records enumerating only 6,160 individuals—survived.

Many of these questions, specifically those detailing mental and physical health, can only be found within the original census document. Ancestry.com's image viewer allows you to scan the original document for this valuable data. The age of this data may lead to discoveries about fourth, fifth or even sixth ancestral generations. The depth of this data can offer personal detail lacking in earlier census surveys. The family relationships category can provide information about extended family. If a married daughter has been counted as part of her father's household, her married surname will appear in the census. Questions about health may reveal symptoms of family illnesses that have appeared in later generations.

History
Unique Feature
Search Tips
Interesting Facts
Source Information

History

The 1880 census began on 1 June 1880 for the general population of the United States. The enumeration was to be completed within thirty days, or two weeks for communities with populations of 10,000 or fewer. Regardless of when an individual was contacted, all responses were to reflect the status of the individual as of 1 June 1880, the official Census Day.

Thirty-eight states (including the recently admitted Colorado) were enumerated in the 1880 census, along with eight territories: Arizona, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Non-organized Alaska was also enumerated, but the "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma) was not enumerated for non-Indians.

Enumerators (census takers) collected the following information for each household:

  • Address (name of the street; house number)
  • Occupant (name of each person and their relationship to head of family)
  • Personal (sex, race, age, marital status, ability to read and write, birthplace, and birthplace of parents)
  • Occupation (trade or profession; number of months unemployed)
  • Health (whether blind, deaf and dumb, crippled, maimed, idiotic, insane, bedridden, or otherwise disabled)

Unique Feature

The 1880 census was the first to identify an individual’s relation to the head of household. In addition, the 1880 census was the first to identify the state, county, and other subdivisions; the name of the street and house number for urban households; illness or disability at the time the census was taken; marital status; number of months unemployed during the year; and the state or country of birth of every individual’s father and mother.

Search Tips

  • Check for variant spellings of names. In 1880, many people could not read or write and they might not have been sure of the spelling of their own names; rigid spelling of names was uncommon.
  • The 1880 census identifies the state or country of birth for an individual’s parents. You can use this location as a starting point to conduct research for additional ancestors.
  • The census may be used to supplement birth or marriage records for the census year or even to partially replace them where vital records are not recorded elsewhere.
  • Because this is the first census to state an individual’s relationship to the head of household, the 1880 census may be useful in discovering previously unknown married daughters, mothers-in-law, cousins, and other relatives living with the family. Note: Keep in mind that the wife may not be the mother of any or all of the children listed.

Interesting Facts

  • The 1880 census may provide clues to genetic diseases in earlier generations of a family. The census reported whether an individual was blind, deaf, dumb, idiotic, insane, maimed, or crippled.
  • This is the first U. S. census to use “Indian” as a race classification.
  • Indians not taxed are not in regular population schedules. Some may appear in special Indian schedules.

Source Information

The material used to create this database comes from four different sources. In certain instances records from individual states were used to reconstruct specific counties.

  • U. S. Federal Population Census, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication Series T9). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D. C.
  • The majority of the images and records come from this source.

  • U. S. Federal Non-Population Census schedules for Virginia, 1850-1880. (NARA microfilm publication Series T1132). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D. C.
  • Approximately 20 images from this collection were used for Henrico County, Virginia.

  • U. S. Federal Non-Population Census schedules for New York, 1850-1880. New York State Library, Albany, NY.
  • Approximately 140 images from this collection were used for Erie, Madison, and Tioga counties in New York.

  • U. S. Federal Non-Population Census schedules for California, 1850-1880. University of California.
  • Approximately 24 images from this collection were used for Los Angeles County, California

    ED Description data came from The National Archives and One-Step by Stephen P. Morse.

    © 1997-2014 Ancestry.com |  Privacy |  Terms and Conditions